A Snapshot of Early Childhood Education in Philadelphia

Last week we introduced data from the April 2017 release of the Office of Child Development and Early Learning (OCDEL) Program Reach and Risk Assessment, which presents useful county-level information about the number of children at risk for poor school outcomes and the number of children served through OCDEL early childhood educational (ECE) programs in fiscal year 2015 - 2016.

Here’s what it looks like in Philadelphia, the “reach” of ECE programs was impressive:

> Over 46,000 children had access to publicly-funded early learning services in 2016.

> Keystone STARS programs provided care to over 19,000 children from birth to four years old and 11,000 children five years or older.

> Close to 10,000 children –under the age of 5 with disabilities/developmental delays received early intervention services.

Philadelphia performed better than other counties statewide with regard to the risks associated with school failure. The City had neither the highest percentage of births born at low birthweight, nor the highest rate of births born to young teenagers; both factors that put children at risk.

Likewise, other counties had higher percentages than Philadelphia of births born to mothers who smoked tobacco or had higher percentages of substantiated abuse and neglect for young children. These findings are promising for our City.

However, the percentage of 3rd graders scoring below proficient in both reading and math remain alarmingly high.

Figure 1 illustrates the percentage of the 46,000 Philadelphia children under age 5 who were served by the early childhood education programs described in OCDEL’s report.

Figure 1. Programs Providing Services to Children under the Age of 5 in Philadelphia 2016

Source: Office of Child Development and Early Learning Program Reach and Risk Assessment State Fiscal Year 2015-16.

Profile of Quality Early Learning in PA

The Office of Child Development and Early Learning’s (ODCEL) Program Reach and Risk Assessment for Fiscal Year 2015-2016 provides useful information about the early learning landscape in Pennsylvania (PA).  Users can download county-level data about the number of children served by various programs and learn about the risk factors for school failure. We mined the report’s data and found the following results for the Commonwealth in 2016:

  • The state and federal Head Start programs reached over 33,000 children through close to 100 agencies.

  • Pennsylvania Pre-K Counts provided high-quality pre-kindergarten opportunities to over 17,000 three and four-year olds in 2016.

  • 66 school districts offered 9,000 pre-K slots.

  • Over 90,000 children aged 0 - 5 with disabilities/developmental delays received early intervention services.

As Figure 1 below illustrates, overall one-third of children under age 5 received quality early care and education services in fiscal year 2015-2016. However, when care levels are broken down, the report indicates half of preschoolers received these services compared to one out of four infants and toddlers.

Figure 1. Children who Received Quality Early Care/Education in Pennsylvania in 2016

Children
(Those under age 5)

Preschoolers
(3 and 4 year-olds)

Infants and Toddlers
(Under age 2)

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Source: Office of Child Development and Early Learning Program Reach and Risk Assessment State Fiscal Year 2015-16.

Public health for communities and children

The long-term health of communities and children are deeply connected.

City Health recently released its inaugural report rating cities on their ‘healthiness.’ We're pleased to note that high quality early childhood programs were included as an indicator of health. City Health explains it here:

“High-quality pre-K improves children’s school readiness and success: they enter school better prepared and are less likely to repeat a grade or be referred to special education. Long-term benefits include higher high-school graduation rates, lower rates of crime and teen pregnancy, higher lifetime earnings, and better health outcomes.”

Philadelphia scored a silver medal overall, and in high quality early childhood education programs, meeting all four critical benchmarks (related to teacher training, class size and ratio, site visits) and 8 of 10 overall benchmarks, but scoring low on enrollment.

There are an increasing number of research reports indicating that high quality early childhood programs can have a positive impact on health from the start, and on a range of life outcomes as children grow, including academic success, social-emotional well-being, and long-term health. A recent presentation by Bartik concludes that significant long-term outcomes can be shown for large-scale pre-K programs if they are high quality or specifically targeted to disadvantaged populations of children.

At the same time, early childhood education alone is not enough. A recent study shows that city living can make asthma worse for children, for example. Children’s success in kindergarten has been linked to food security, and long-term life outcomes can be influenced by factors ranging from family stability, and segregation, to specific parent engagement indicators. For example, Penn State researchers report that:

  • Promoting positive parenting practices and parent-child relationships can reduce behavioral problems.
  • Promoting home learning activities and effective teaching strategies can foster early learning.
  • Strengthening parent-teacher partnerships can boost academic and social-emotional skill development.
  • Emphasizing a child's physical health can aid healthy overall development.

Resilience can also be a factor for children challenged by ongoing toxic stress, which may be exacerbated by living in poverty, experiencing health issues, or being hungry. Strategies to build resilience are still being clarified, but it is clear that positive relationships with caring adults, along with opportunities for creative play, exercise, and mindfulness, can help. High quality preschool can be a factor in providing those opportunities.

Joan Lombardi, from The Center for the Study of Social Policy recently discussed a growing movement to “involve the whole community in efforts to help children and families learn and thrive.” This is based on a range of concepts, including: 

  • The ecological systems model that recognizes that children grow up in families, which are influenced by the communities around them and in turn by policies at all levels.
  • The movement towards collective impact, rather than focusing on impact from a single program.
  • The use of population-based data to drive towards results. 

Lombardi suggest a range of steps communities can take to strengthen and enhance the effectiveness of their efforts, including planning across sectors; developing strong connections and linkages among groups, and from families through the community; and developing integrated systems and dashboards to track the success of those efforts.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation launched the 500 Cities Project in 2015, a useful source for current information on city indicators, “to provide city- and census tract-level small area estimates for chronic disease risk factors, health outcomes, and clinical preventive service use for the largest 500 cities in the United States.” The data for the largest cities in every state is included, to ensure all states are represented. 

Some data specifically related to Philadelphia changes over time are available here. The Pew Charitable Trusts has also released some case studies and infographics about how community development and health are related.

Last week NIEER described this report about cities offering universal preschool: “Child Care and Early Education Research Connections this week shared a Resource List providing a comprehensive list of city universal preschool initiative evaluations and research in the Research Connections collection. To count as universal, a city's program must aim to eventually provide universal access to publicly-funded preschool for all 4-year-olds using at least some city funds, even if it does not currently achieve universal access.”

The takeaway? It might take the whole city plus some high quality early childhood education to give every child the opportunity to succeed. Many elements that contribute to success are already in place in Philadelphia, and in other cities, which can provide examples of how to proceed.

Supporting Young Children of Undocumented Immigrant Parents in Early Care and Education

 

Recent actions of the federal government have created significant anxiety and fear among immigrant communities in Philadelphia; many immigrants are worried about how new law enforcement and deportation priorities will affect their day-to-day lives.1,2 Research demonstrates that the stress, anxiety, and fear undocumented immigrant parents experience in their day-to-day lives can have direct and indirect negative effects on their children, whether or not children are themselves undocumented. A recent article by Child Trends provides a succinct overview of the impact new deportation policies may have on children in the U.S. 

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